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PRIDEAUX JOHN SELBY, Esq., F.L.S., CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esa., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh,









‘‘Omnes res create sunt divine sapientiz et potentiz testes, divitie felicitatis humane :—ex harum usu bonifas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex ceconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibirelictis semper estimata; a veré eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; malé doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit.”— LINN2ZUS.

** Quelque soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu’ouvrir les yeux pour voir qu'elle est le chef-d’ceuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rapportent toutes ses opérations.”—BrucKNER, Théorie du Systeme Animal, Leyden, 1767.

lee. ee ws se Cee ene sylvan powers Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild - And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs That press with nimble step the mountain thyme And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, But scatter round ten thousand forms minute Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock Or rifted oak or cavern deep: the Naiads too Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, Where peril waits the bold adventureyr’s tread, The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, All, all to us unlock their secret stores And pay their cheerful tribute. J. TayLor, Norwich, 1818.





I. Contributions to the Knowledge of the Terrestrial Planarie, from communications from Dr. Fritz Miiller of Brazil, and personal investigations. By Dr. Max SCHULTZE ...cccs.secececscssecsceeaceeenes

II. Description of a new species of Earth-worm (Lumbricus core- thrurua), « By Dr. F. MG. ur oo .ice ile cect edsteeedcseees Susawensanescses

III. Remarks on MM. Koren and Danielssen’s Researches on the Development of Purpura lapillus. By Wm. B. Carpenter, M.D., MRS EGS, FoLS.: sc cccccostecvs sasebetaadsdsesidecaas Edecbeunteuehese sd bas

IV. On the Ultimate Structure of Spongilla, and Additional Notes on Freshwater Infusoria. By H. J. Carrmr, Esq., Assistant Surgeon PEK iy CURT. COPIGM BP IGNC.) Bocodcksdncsarcesciscasranpavecnecphonnes




V. Notice of the Animal of Turbo Sarmaticus and other Mollusca ~

from the Cape. By ARTHUR ADAMS, F.L.S. &6..........seececceorenees VI. List of the Echinodermata dredged between Drontheim and

the North Cape. By R. M‘Anprew, ene F.R.S8., and L. BARRETT,

PME RDG e ven oy soos papeeep add sac oa Wad FeehagSOMRMeN EM fae ds vol TigNlN Ride idle ears ledes VII. Descriptions of four new species of Echinodermata. By Locas’ Barrett, F.G.8. CWith @ Plate.) coc... ec ccscseccsesvsecsasees

New Books :—On a True Parthenogenesis in Moths and Bees; a Con- tribution to the History of Reproduction in Animals, by C. T. E. Von Siebold, Translated by W. 8S. Dallas.—Eenige Vergelijkend- Ontleedkundige Aanteekeningen over den Otolicnus Peli. Eene

_Academische Proeve, door P. Hoekema Kingma.—Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S.




—Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum; auctore E. G. Steudel 48—57

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Royal Institution of Great

MUPURERE wlan sy seaviwexs BEAN Se gk ES A RR RU a LD 57—75


On the Saliva of Dolium galea, by Prof. Troschel; Note on the Oc- currence of the Harvest Mouse in Cornwall, by C. W. Peach; A Notice of the Baradla Cavern, near Agtelek, in Hungary, by Dr. Schmidl; On the Australian Dugong (Halicore australis), by


Mr. Fairholme Beareresesee Coe cee see ere eeeeseeesereeeeeesees eoeretsereees 75—80


VIII. Hectocotylus-formation in Argonauta and Tremoctopus ex- plained by Observations on similar Formations in the Cephalopoda im general. By Professor Japerus STEENsTRUP. (With two Plates.)

IX. On the Occurrence of the genuis Cryptoceras in Silurian Rocks.

By E. J. CoapMAn, Professor of Mineralogy and Geology in jabrebbiect: College, Toronto........sececsecseeseesscesencase bapeeccccccseacseedsesseses seeese

X. List of Coleoptera received from Old Calabar, on the West Coast of Africa. By ANDREW Murray, Edinburgh ...

XI. Notes on the Indian species of Lycium. By T. ANDERSON, Esq., M.D., Oude Contingent. .........-.ssssscersssacess bnhoe ke tannnesantee?

XII. On the Development of Eagpere. By Wo. B. CarPENTER, M.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S.......04 B a scnsinnndhhe Cop oipyieyiis wis ade pannel ical

XIII. Observations on the Lane of the Trematode Worms. By Dr. P. pe FILipri


XIV. Observations on the Development of the Star-fishes. By J. Koren and D. C. DANIELSSEN......eeeeeseerees Seb eicbacveseastevent ens

New Books :—System der Ornithologie West Afrika’s von Dr.G. Hart- laub.—Popular History of the Aquarium of Marine and Freshwater Animals and Plants, by George Brettingham Sowerby, F.L.S.— A Popular History of British Crustacea; comprising a Familiar Account of their Classification and Habits; by Adam White, Assistant, Zoological Department, British Museum








pnbaba sie 136—141

Proceedings of the Royal Society; Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 141—154

On the Causes of the Opening and Closing of Stomates, by Hugo von -

Mohl; Descriptions of new Norwegian Annelides, by M. Sars; On Gladiolus imbricatus, Linn.; Notes on some new and rare Diatomacee from the Stomachs of Ascidize, by Mr. George Nor-

man; On the Vascular System of Anodonta, by Prof.Langer. 154—160


XV. Researches on the mode in which Gum-Tragacanth is formed. By Hugo von Monu

AERO ROOT HERE EHH RAO eee eT Hee eHeeeeeeeee


Page XVI. On the Sands intermediate the Inferior Oolite and Lias of the Cotteswold Hills, compared with a similar deposit upon the Coast

of Yorkshire. By JOHN. LYCETT, Esq. ....0ssssscosccccsccsscecsscsccsscns 170 XVII. Descriptions of new Ceylon Coleoptera. By Joun Nirt- Mile, COlOmibh0, CEylons oii sccicssccessesocssecsccsccengusscodesosacccosnscsvece 177

XVIII. Remarks on the Lias of Barrow in Leicestershire, compared with the lower part of that Formation in Gloucestershire, Worcester- shire and Warwickshire. By the Rev. P. B. Bropin, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President of the Warwickshire Naturalists’ Field Club............ 190

XIX. Observations on the Microscopic Examination of Foraminifera obtained in Deep-sea Bottoms at the Feejee Islands. By Joun DENIS MacpDonaLbD, Assistant Surgeon H.M.S. Herald. (With two Plates.) 193

XX. On the Development of Neritina fluviatilis. By E.CLAPAREDE, 196

XXI. Observations on Trachelius ovum, Ehrenberg. By Professor CARL GEGENBAUR eeeeeeceseee ieadikiscles Wbscnsacecevses avabbuseresisnvnees 201

XXII. On true Parthenogenesis in Plants. By Dr. L. RADLKoFER. 204 Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Geological Society...... 211—236

On the Nervous System of Dentalium entalis, by M.T. de Lacaze Duthiers; Descriptions of some new Norwegian Polypes, by M. Sars; On the Natural History of the Conway Reef, by J. D. Macdonald, Assistant-Surgeon H.M.S. Herald; Description of Siphonactinia, a new genus of Actinie from Norway, by D.C. Danielssen and J. Koren; On the Occurrence of Urocerus gigas in Cornwall, by Dr. E. Moore..............0.ss008 red sink Sek oes 236—240


XXIII. The Process of Fecundation in the Vegetable Kingdom, and its relation to that in the Animal Kingdom. By Dr. L. RApLKorErR. 241

; - XXIV. On Rissoa pulcherrima. By Witu1am Cuark, Esq....... 262

XXV. Further Observations on Deep Soundings obtained by H.M.S. Herald,’ Capt. Denham, R.N., F.R.S., employed on Surveying Ser- vice in the South-western Pacific; with an Account of the Exa- mination of the Alimentary Matter of the Salpe as bearing on the nature of the Materials composing the Sea-bottom. By Joun Denis MACDONALD, Assistant Surgeon R.N. (With a Plate.) ..... sb neb cadens 264

XXVI. On the Distribution of the Mollusca in Depth on the Coasts of Nordland and Finmark. By R. M‘Anprew, F.R.S., and L. Barrett, F.G.S. tes eeaeseeeesescas ean eeereernsenecsneeeserondsesesesereneces 267

XXVII. Descriptions of new Ceylon Coleoptera. By Joun Nixt- ner, Colombo, Ceylon .............cccccccseoeees par bevbovinvivetewe siaabeeh ced 272


Page XXVIII. Descriptions of the Male of Lycosa tarentuloides Made-

riana, Walck., and of three newly discovered species of the genus Lycosa. By JoHn BLackwatt, F.L.S. ...-eseeeeeeseee besos Jeaevader 282

XXIX. On Hydatina senta. By Dr. F. Lzypie. (With a Plate.) 288

Proceedings of the Royal Society ; Botanical Society of Edinburgh ; Zoological Society ......sescscovesseeee sie ies isaearaaies ranuae eens 297—317

On, the Vitality of Seeds transported by Marine Currents, by M. C. Martins; Description of a new Norwegian Star-fish, by M. Sars ; Description of a new Tanager, by P. L. Sclater; Description of a new genus of Star-fish, by P. C. Asbjornsen ....00.....000+ 317—320

NUMBER CXIX. XXX. On some new Paleozoic Star-fishes. By J.W. Sauter, Esq.,

F.G.S., Geol. Survey of Great Britain. (With a Plate.) ..........0.+0: 321 XXXI. Observations on the Habits of various Marine Animals.

By Madame JEANNETTE POWER ....ccscoccssecscccscsccceseccsesessonsess 334 XXXII. On the discovery of Cnicus tuberosus at Avebury, Wilts.

By Prof. Buckman, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.A.S: &...cccsssccccsssseccacesoes 337 XXXIII. On the Amphioxus lanceolatus. By ALEXANDER

PN gaaiE "ie > a RR eR oA Sm NR GR sabidnthanes Suiihnhdd 4 chdtedsedo 339 XXXIV. On the Production of Varieties and Monstrous Flowers

by Pruning. By B. Cuarxe, F.L.S. &e. ...... Wovlediviicedesercsecees 34]

XXXY. The Process of Fecundation in the Vegetable Kingdom, and its relation to that in the Animal Kingdom. By Dr. L. RapiKorer. 344

XXXVI. On the Presence of Motile Organs, and the Power of Locomotion, in Foraminifera. By P. H. Gosss, F.R.S................ 365

XXXVII. Note on the Presence of the Fossil genus Isodonta, Buv.,

in the English Jurassic Rocks. By Joun Lycert, Esq............004 367 XXXVIII. Descriptions of New Ceylon Coleoptera. By JoHn

NiETNER, Colombo, Ceylon.........csessessceseceeveees Cap dedeevesdiaved cai 368

Proceedings of the Zoological Society .........:ssssseereeeceeseeees 376--396

Note on Elephant Remains from the Gravel near Ballingdon Hill, Essex, and on Bovine Remains lately found at Clacton, Essex, by John Brown, F.G.S., of Stanway; Description of a new species of Pachyrhamphus, by P. L. Sclater; On Placodus Andriani, by Prof. Owen; A few Remarks on the Midge Fly which infests the Wheat, by Jonathan Couch, F.L.S.; Description of Actinopsis,

a new genus of Actinie from Norway, by D.C. Danielssen and FU bake 00 be osnsbonaceay psasatiincdlasoanmalelienn sesersesseesess 3I6—400


NUMBER CXX. Page XXXIX. Description of eight new species of Entomostraca found

at Weymouth. By Joun Lussock, F.G.S. (With two Plates.)... 401

XL. On the great Bird of Paradise (Paradisea apoda, Linn.); * Burong mati’ (Dead Bird) of the Malays; Fanéhan’ of the natives of Aru. By ALFRED R. WALLACE secocscoseccncesecconutcteceevseseevees 411

XLI. Observations on the Habits of the common Marten (Martes foina). By Madame JEANNETTE POWERoeoe......scseecceecceeecesenceees 416

XLII. On the Unity of the genera Pleuracanthus, Diplodus, and Xenacanthus, and on the Specific Distinction of the Permian Fossil Xenacanthus Dechent (Beyrich). By Sir Poitiep p— Maupas GREY MIRE, SMEG EGR 6 eas Sib dae soa dds Nedebevelsensccdscscctocdscegeczess 423

XLITI. Remarks on the species of Whales which have been observed on the Coasts of Cornwall. By JonatuHan Coucn, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 424

XLIV. The Process of Fecundation in the Vegetable Kingdom, and its relation to that in the Animal Kingdom. By Dr. L. Rapikorgr. 439

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ..4...ssssecscsecseeceeeeeens 460—467

On Circulation in Plants, by A. Trécul; On a new genus of Birds from Mexico, by P. L. Sclater, Esq.; Discovery of Footsteps of Quadrupeds in the New Red Sandstone of Saint-Valbert near Luxeuil (Haute-Sadéne), by M. Daubrée ; On two new species of Birds from Bogota, by P. L. Sclater, Esq............. banks 467—472


XLV. On the Natural History of the Aru Islands. By ALFRED Tee AEUAGE acais vee chn cd eveutad ndbcudesk- i046 u0 desir ue nd dba p eas Bad das anode 473

XLVI. Thoughts on Species. By Jamis D. DANA.........ccceceee 485

XLVII. Supplement to a Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their Structure, Functions, Gconomy, and Systematic Arrangement. By JOHN BLACKWALL, FLAS. .....cccececessceeseeees 497

XLVIII. On certain Coleopterous Insects from the Cape de Verde Islands. By T. VeRNon Wo.uuasTON, M.A., F.LAS. .......ccseceeeeee 503

XLIX. Remarks on the Columbine, with a description of a new Indian Pigeon, akin to the ‘Stock Dove’ of Europe. By Epwarp PEO S Hisecs ha ber vobeguuakicns tues cnersnuscahs sere causaccteccséne cowseusni sn enee 506

L. Description of two new Cryptogams. By Mr. H. O. Srepuens. COPIED: BPIMEO.) iacsss cies osvcnpbevesivecrvoupeseusuvovesnndescesscousceessevases 514

New Books :—A Manual Flora of Madeira and the adjacent Islands of _ Porto Santo and the Dezertas, by R.T. Lowe,-M.A. Part I.



Page -Thalamiflorze.—The Grasses of Great Britain: illustrated by J. E. Sowerby; described by C. Johnson.—The Insect Hunters ; Or, Entomology 10 -Verse......ccccoscsccccescsscncenvercessensens 516—518

~ Proceedings of the Zoological Society ...scecceceecicssenseveseeeees 519—524

On the British Edriophthalma, by C. Spence Bate, Esq. ; On Circulation in Plants, by A. Trécul; On Sepia officinalis, by Mr. R. Damon; On the Spherobolus stellatus, by the Rev. H. H. Higgins, M.A. ; On the Grape Disease, by Mr. J. W. Slater; On the Cause of the Rhythmic Motion of the Heart, by J. Paget, Esq., F.R.S....524—530


Puate J. Structure of Spongilla. 11: | Heetocotylus-formation in Argonauta and Tremoctopus. TV. New Species of Echinodermata. Vy Foraminifera from the Feejee Islands.

VII. Diatomacez and Desmidiez from the Feejee Islands. VIII. Anatomy of Hydatina senta. IX. New species of Paleozoic Star-fishes.

i} New species of British Entomostraca. XII. New species of Cryptogams.





OS SidsbdsWececsonees per litora spargite muscum, Naiades, et circlm vitreos considite fontes : Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores : Floribus et pictum, diva, replete canistrum. At vos, o Nymph Craterides, ite sub undas ; Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas Ferte, Dee pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo.’

N. Parthenii Glannettasil Ecl. 1.

No. 115. JULY 1857.

I.—Contributions to the Knowledge of the Terrestrial Planarie, from communications from Dr. Fritz Miller of Brazil and personal investigations. By Dr. Max Scuurtze*.

THE travels of the English naturalist, Charles Darwin+, have made us acquainted with a rich fauna of terrestrial Planarie in the humid regions of primeval forest in South America, which merits the attention of zoologists in a high degree. If it was impossible to help being astonished, in the first place, at the remarkable circumstance that worms belonging to the order of the Turbellaria—which we are accustomed to find only in water in Europe, and which, in consequence of their extremely soft, delicate parenchyma, destitute of all supports, appear destined to live exclusively in that medium,—should occur on land, our interest would be no less attracted by the statements of the large size of these animals, the variegated colours with which they were adorned, and their Nemertoid form combined with the internal structure of the Planari@ of our fresh waters, The

* Translated by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S., from a copy of the paper in the Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Halle,’ vol. iv. 1857, kindly communicated by the author.

+ Naturwissenschaftliche Reisen, deutsch von E. Dieffenbach, 1844, p- 28; Annals and Magazine of Natural History, first ‘series vol, xiv. Pp. 241, 1844.

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. xx. 1

2 Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz.

demand for new and more detailed information upon the natural history of these inhabitants of the primeval forests has unfortu- nately been very sparingly satisfied since the date of the state- ments of the meritorious traveller. It therefore gave me peculiar pleasure to obtain such information from an approved observer, Dr. Fritz Miller, who has been settled for some years in the colony of Blumenau in the south of Brazil, and now in Desterro, on the island of Santa Catharina. Although his statements have been thrown off under unfavourable external circumstances, and without those optical aids which would have been desirable, I do not hesitate to publish them, as forming valuable additions to our previous knowledge. I at the same time take the opportunity to bring together what we know of these animals from Darwin and some others, and, lastly, add the results of some microscopic investigations into the intimate structure of these animals, which I made upon a specimen, well preserved in spirits, brought home by Dr. Burmeister, and handed over to me to be used as I pleased.

It is well known that O. F. Miller, the founder of our know- ledge of the Turbellaria, discovered a species living upon the land, under stones in moist earth, to which he gave the name of Planaria terrestris (Vermium Terr. et Fluv. Hist. ii. p. 68). According to the short description of this animal given by the celebrated Danish zoologist, it possesses a nearly cylindrical ‘hody, only somewhat flattened on the ventral surface, 8 lines in length, and $rds of a line in breadth; it is blackish-grey above and white beneath, and exhibits two small black eye-spots at the anterior extremity. Dugeés saw the same species in France (Ann. des Sci. Nat. 1 sér. xxi. p.82) ; and adds to Miiller’s state- ments, that the position of the buccal orifice, the form of the mus- cular cesophagus, the arborescent ramifications of the intestinal canal, the male copulative organ, and the seminal vessels, agree with the same parts in our freshwater species.

As far as I am aware, my friend Fritz Miiller is the dinky person who has since this period met with the animal, which is certainly a rarity. It was in the neighbourhood of Grimmen, near Greifswald, that several specimens were discovered under stones; they were unfortunately only examined with the lens, but exhibited all the parts described by Dugés.

In the following, I have brought section F. Miiller’s state- ments regarding the Terrestrial Planarie of Brazil, which have reached me in various letters :—

“Points of agreement with the Planaria of fresh water are, the position of the buccal orifice towards the hinder third of the lower surface of the body, and also the dendroccelar nature of the intestine ; in the latter, there are the ordinary three branches,

Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz. 3

an anterior and two posterior, the ramifications of which are usually repeatedly divided. The proboscis, as it glimmers through the skin, appears as a long cylinder, in the middle of which the buccal orifice is visible as a transverse cleft. On a closer ex- amination of the proboscis after removal, however, it is found that it may be dilated into a considerable flat cup or disk, which is sometimes elliptic, sometimes roundish, with its circumference sometimes nearly entire, sometimes more or less deeply lobed, and exhibits in its base, a little before the middle, a rather nar- row cesophageal orifice, a structure which occurs in many of the larger marine Planaria, but not in our freshwater species. In repose, the lateral margins are rolled in, and the whole organ folded together in such a way that it represents a cylinder with an anterior, undulated, longitudinal fissure.

“Points of difference from the genus Planaria are, the elon- gated form of the body, the slight depression, and the acute anterior extremity. The habit is thus often more that of a Nemertoid than of a Planaria. The eyes also, as far as they are known, are different ; they are present in unusual number, not, as in Planaria nigra, forming a simple series, running regularly on the anterior margin, but compressed into dense streaks or spots near the anterior margin, and extending from thence in an irregular row, which constantly becomes less dense posteriorly along the lateral margins to the hinder extremity.

These peculiarities, in conjunction with their dwelling-place, certainly justify their generic separation from the aquatic Pla- nari@. In accordance with the analogy of Typhloplana and Leptoplana, the name Geoplana might be formed for them. They like moderately moist places, under wood, bark, and stones, and between leaves ef the Bromeliacez (but not in the water there accumulated). They appear to rest by day, and to crawl about during the night. Eggs somewhat larger than those of Planaria Ulva, and roundish, which could hardly belong to any other animal, were once found under wood.

An important question is, whether the Geoplana, like their aquatic allies, bear cilia upon the surface of their bodies. Not possessing a microscope, and remembering an experiment in J. Miiller’s physiological course, I sprinkled a large specimen of Geoplana rufiventris with a little arrowroot, when I saw it move constantly forwards and sometimes a little outwards on the back, and backwards on the ventral surface, by which the existence of cilia seems to be placed beyond a doubt. .

“The species hitherto observed are :—

“1. Geoplana tristriata, pale yellowish-green, with three nar- row, dark, longitudinal lines on the back ; belly paler. Greatest ‘breadth about the second third part of the length, where the

: ]*

A Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz.

mouth is situated. It likes to bend the head upwards. At the

point of curvature on each side there is a closely packed group

of eye-spots, which are continued in an irregular series to the

posterior extremity. The anterior margin of the head appears to

~ destitute of eyes. Length 14 inch; breadth 1} line. Abun- ant,

“2. Geoplana octostriata. Habit and eyes as in the preceding species ; colour pale yellow; belly whitish; on each side of the back four dark brown, approximated, longitudinal streaks, far broader than the longitudinal lines of the preceding. Not rare.

“3. Geoplana elegans. Habit similar, but a little less attenu- ated in front. Length 2} in., with a breadth of 1 line. LEye- spots very small, forming a rather broad dense band anteriorly, becoming narrower and less dense posteriorly, and passing into asimple row. Colour yellow; belly paler ; on the middle of the back a broad, deep black, longitudinal stripe, and between this and the lateral margin on each side a narrow, deep orange- coloured longitudinal stripe. Only found once.

“4, Geoplana pallida. Of a similar form to the preceding. Colour yellowish-white, with a single narrow, blackish, longitu- dinal stripe on the back. Several specimens between boards.

“5. Geoplana atra. Deep black, beneath grey ; nearly cylin- drical, but little attenuated before and behind. ‘The eyes difli- cult of detection, although present. Proboscis more cylindrical than in the freshwater Planaria, but always much wider at the buccal than at the cesophageal extremity. Length 9 lines; breadth 4 aline. Found once under the bark of a rotten Figueira (Ficus doliaria ?).

“6. Geoplana marginata. Back and belly deep blackish-brown, shining, with narrow, golden-yellow, longitudinal bands on the middle of the back, and broader dull yellow bands along the lateral margins; in the latter the eye-spots are very distinctly visible, closely approximated in front, posteriorly in a simple loose series. The animal, which was 3-4 inches in length, and some lines broad, much attenuated before and behind, was creeping in the house.

7. Geoplana rufiventris. Back dark brown; belly tile-red ; moderately attenuated before and behind. ‘The eyes closely grouped in several rows, distinct on the margins of the anterior part of the body, not detected posteriorly. The animal, which was a few lines in breadth, and several inches long, was found on wood.

“© 8, Geoplana olivacea. Belly yellowish-grey ; back greenish- brown with dark brown longitudinal bands margined with paler colour, darker towards the margins, paler towards the head.

Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planarie. 5

Eyes along the entire margin of the body, closer in front, very much scattered behind. Not rare.

“9, Geoplana Nephelis. Resembling the preceding in form, but somewhat less elongated; in form and colour it reminds one of a Nephelis. Back uniform brown; belly paler. Not rare.

“10. Geoplana Mazimiliani. Almost like the preceding ; the back with a paler, yellowish, longitudinal band. ‘This species, however, is further distinguished from the preceding one by its - mouth and genital orifice being placed far more posteriorly, and its penis being almost globular, whilst in G. Nephelis this organ is long and cylindrical. In the latter, also, the orifice of the pro- boscis appeared to have entire margins, whilst in G. Maximilian (when examined in a spirit specimen) it appeared deeply five- lobed.

“11. Geoplana marmorata, Uength 4 inches, breadth 4 lines. The eye-spots present nothing remarkable. The dorsal surface is pale reddish-grey, with small black spots arranged in irregular, repeatedly-anastomosing, longitudinal rows ; the ventral surface is pale grey. The proboscis is dilatable into a flat cup with an undulated margin (in a spirit specimen).

12. Geoplanapulchella. The anterior third of the body above brownish tile-red, with oval whitish spots; beneath grey, with a whitish band in the middle. Eye-spots considerably approxi- mated near the anterior margin; their series uninterrupted on the anterior margin, missing on the posterior two-thirds of the body. About an inch long, by fully 1 line in breadth, not very much attenuated anteriorly. Only once observed.

13. Geoplana subterranea. This, even from its abode, is pecu- harly interesting, as it again enlarges the circle of vital condi- tions under which this animal form is enabled to exist. After finding Flat-worms in the clear spring-water of the mountains, as well as in the lakes and fens of the plains, under the stones of the sea-coast, as on the floating sea-weeds in the midst of the ocean ; after obtaining the prospect of a rich fauna of terrestrial Planarie which conceal themselves in damp moss, under stones and bark, and rise to the summits of the primeeval forest, where, between the spinous leaves of the Bromelie, they find a per- petually humid asylum,—Earth-Planarie now make their ap- pearance, companions of the Earth-worms and grubs. In cha- racteristic opposition to its coloured congeners, so abundantly supplied with eyes, which live above the surface of the earth, this Geoplana, dwelling in darkness, is without both the adorn- ment and the sense of colour,—milk-white and destitute of eyes. In its habit, this species is more removed than any other from the typical form of Planaria. Its uniformly narrow, very long body, rounded off at the extremities, which, with a length of

6 Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz.

2-3 or even more than 4 inches, scarcely attains a thickness of Sths of a line, gives it exactly the appearance of a Nemertina. When the intestine is full, its contents, shining through the skin, give the milk-white colour a more or less vivid tinge of flesh-colour or rosy-red. The buccal orifice is removed un- usually far backwards; the genital orifice is situated quite in the vicinity of the posterior extremity ; the proboscis is bell-shaped ; the mtestine of the ordinary form, with its lateral branches simple or forked, placed close together.

“The animal lives especially m loose and sandy, but also in heavy and tenacious clay soils, in company with Lumbricus core- thrurus*. It may seem strange that so soft an animal, which scarcely bears to be gently touched, should be able to exist and make its way through this medium. This difficulty is got over by the Earth-worms, which burrow through the soil in such a way, that it is penetrated in all directions, like a sponge, by smooth passages of various widths. As a reward for this, the Earth-worms are devoured, or rather sucked, by the Flat-worm. That this was the mode of nourishment, was easy to see, from the colour of the contents of the intestine. But I have also met with Geoplane which were holding a young Lumbricus with their protruded proboscis, and whose intestines were beginning to be filled with fresh blood.

“For the microscopic investigation of the internal structure, this species would be better adapted than any other, not only on account of its transparency, but also because, with a little patience, it may be dug out of the ground in any quantity. All the other Geoplane occur but rarely, as is certainly the case with the European Planaria terrestris of O. F. Miller.”

So far the communications of my friend Fritz Miller.

I may be allowed to add to these specific descriptions, those which have been made known by others, which occur scattered in various Journals, and have never yet been brought together. As regards the generic name Geoplana, this appears to be so well chosen, that zoologists will certainly acquiesce in it. The neces- sity of the generic separation of the terrestrial Planarie from the others was felt even by Darwin, who says: The terrestrial Planarie belong to the genus Planaria, Dugés, Polycelis, Ehrbg. ; they may, however, form a distinct section of this genus, charac- terized by their more roundish narrow body, and the usual pre- sence of longitudinal stripes of very brilliant colours.” Never- theless Darwin established no new name for them. Besides the English traveller, Blanchard and Leidy have described terres-

* The description of this new species of Earth-worm will follow this paper.

Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planarie. 7

trial Planarie. The former* received specimens preserved in spirits of a species observed in Chili by Claude Gay; these he made use of for anatomical investigations which will be here- after referred to. Blanchard named the species Polycladus Gayt. The generic name cannot be extended to all terrestrial Planarie, and remains attached provisionally only to this species. The same is the case with the name Rhynchodemus, given by Leidy + to a North American terrestrial Planaria.

Darwin’s terrestrial Planarie are as follow { :— 14. Geoplana vaginuloides. 19. Geoplana pallida.

15. G. elegans. 20. G. elongata. 16. G. pulla. 21. G. semelineata. 17. G. bilinearis. 22. G. maculata. 18. G. nigrofusca. 23. G. Tasmaniana.

Of these species described by Darwin, some, most probably, agree with those observed by F. Muller. Thus the G. elegans of the latter may sink in the G. vaginuloides, Darwin, and the G. pulla, Darwin, may be identical with G. olivacea or Mazi- miliani, Miller. A final decision could only be furnished by figures, which, however, are not given by Darwin, nor as yet by F. Miiller. If the two first-mentioned species should prove to be distinct, Miiller’s G. elegans must receive another name, as this has already been given by Darwin to another species, referred to above under No. 15. In any case, however, Miiller’s name pallida must be changed, as Darwin’s species of the same name has the right of priority. From its pure white colour the latter might remind us of the G. subterranea, if the strongly- marked absence of the eyes did not sufficiently show the right of the form living under ground to rank as a distinct species.

The two above-mentioned species, described by Blanchard and Leidy as coming in addition to the 23 already referred to, are:

24. Geoplana (Polycladus) Gayi, Blanchard. Blackish-green on the back, with a white median line; the margin with a broad orange border, which is bounded by two narrow black lines ; ventral surface orange.

Length 85-90 millimetres; breadth about 30 millimetres.

Hab. Chili, in moist places on the ground.

* Historia de Chile p. Claude Gay, Vers, pl. 1. fig. 2 (which I have been unable to consult); Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3 sér. vin. p. 140.

+ Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v. 1850-1851, pp. 241 & 289.

{ [The author has translated all Darwin’s descriptions, which, however, we have omitted, as they were originally published in this Journal, loc. cit. supra. He has substituted Dr. Miiller’s generic name, Geoplana, for that of Planaria, under which Mr. Darwin described his species.—Ep. ]

8 Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz.

25. Geoplana (Rhynchodemus) sylvatica, Leidy. Body elongate, fusiform, attenuated in front, pointed behind ; the ventral sur- face somewhat flattened. Colour on the back grey, with two brown stripes along the median line, and a transverse brown spot at or close behind the middle ; belly whitish ; head brown, bent upwards, exhibiting two black, lateral eyes. Length, 2-5 lines ; breadth in the anterior fourth, 3th line; in the posterior, 4th line.

Lives between stones, flower-pots, &c., in the gardens of Philadelphia, and also under wood and fragments of bark in the woods of the neighbourhood.

As a twenty-sixth and last species this is followed by the Geoplana (Planaria) terrestris, O. F. Muller, the only species hitherto observed in Europe. This has been already referred to.

What Darwin and Leidy tell us with regard to the anatomy of the terrestrial Planariea, refers solely to the parts recogni- zable with the naked eye, or with a low magnifying power, such as the alimentary apparatus, the efferent parts of the sexual apparatus, and the eyes; they are fully confirmed by the state- ments of F. Miiller, communicated above. The form of the ramified intestine is the same in all as in our well-known fresh- water species; this is also the case with the position of the buccal orifice. Only the form of the cesophageal tube differs essentially, as F. Miiller particularly points out, in several species, by the cylindrical form becoming converted more into a trumpet-shape, with repeatedly folded margins to the outer orifice. The genital orifice is situated throughout behind the mouth, and is always simple, by which the terrestrial Planaria are removed from the large marine forms, for a knowledge of which we are especially indebted to Quatrefages *, and some of which I have myself been able to examine +. The penis and seminal ducts have been detected in several species. Where eyes are present there are either ¢wo, as in G. terrestris and - sylvatica, or many, and these are then always distributed on the margin of the animal in groups, at pretty uniform distances apart, or more singly. Darwin and Leidy state that they con- tain a refractive body.

The above statements regarding the position of the buccal and genital apertures do not agree with what Blanchard says of his genus Polycladus. In this the buccal orifice is said to be in the anterior, instead of the posterior third of the body, the genital orifice still farther forward. From the further description of the animal, however, it appears clearly that these

* Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3 sér, iv. p. 129. t+ Verhandl. der phys. med. Gesellsch. in Wiirzburg, iv. 1854, p. 222.

Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz. 9

statements are founded merely upon a confusion between the anterior and posterior extremities, which may be excusable, as Blanchard did not see the animal living *. With such a notion, however, Blanchard’s statements upon the central nervous system in Polycladus Gayi of course lose all value. This is said to consist of two cerebral ganglia, situated over the seminal vesicle, and two cords running backwards (forwards) which are again interrupted by several (up to 14) small ganglia. What organ has been confounded here with the nervous system, it is hard to say; at any rate no cerebral ganglia can be situated above the seminal vesicle, but they must be sought at the opposite end of the body.

In this certainly imperfect state of our knowledge of the struc- ture of the terrestrial Planarie, I very opportunely obtained a specimen of such an animal. It was found by Dr. Burmeister, near Rio Janeiro, and put, whilst living, into spirits, in which it had been very well preserved, with the exception of an accidental injury in the middle of the body. The tissues, indeed, were only partially applicable to microscopic examination. Never- theless, by the aid of glycerine, which is often exceedingly serviceable in the clearing up of spirit preparations for the microscope, I succeeded in obtaining an insight into the finer structure of several systems of organs. Unfortunately, the development of the generative organs was so backward in the animal, that nothing could be ascertained with regard to the sexual glands.

My specimen belongs to none of the 26 species above cha- racterized, and I therefore introduce it into the system under the name of Geoplana Burmeisteri. Its length is 22 inches; its greatest breadth behind the middle of the body 3 an inch ; its thickness 1 lme. The body is pointed before and behind ; attenuated more rapidly posteriorly, and anteriorly very gra- dually and drawn out into a long point. The colour of the back is sepia-brown, blackish-brown at the anterior extremity ; _a pale brown streak runs along the middle of the back from the anterior to the posterior extremity, very distinctly and sharply ~ bounded by nearly black margims in the anterior quarter of the animal, then obsolete, and only distinct again in the vicinity of the hinder extremity. On the back also a quan-

* I may, however, mention in passing, that this is not the first error of the kind into which this observer has fallen. He has slipped into the same mistake with the Caryophylleus, which is so common in the intestine of Cyprinus Brama (Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3 sér. x. p. 323, pl. 12. figs. 1, 2). Here also the extremity furnished with the organs of generation is marked

as the anterior, whilst it is really the posterior, as was rightly perceived by all the older observers.

10 Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz.

tity of small, circular, whitish points are scattered; these can just be perceived with the naked eye, are smaller and closer together in the anterior half, and finally disappear en- tirely at the head. The lower surface is uniformly greyish- yellow, and exhibits close behind the middle the buccal orifice, from which, in my specimen, the repeatedly folded, funnel- shaped buccal extremity of the cesophagus projects, and 5 lines further back, the very small genital orifice. Eyes were discovered by the microscopic examination of the margin of the anterior half of the body; they form blackish-brown pigment- spots, usually of a crescent-shape, lying pretty close behind one another in a single row, in the concavity of which, directed outwards, there is a round transparent body, which does not refract light very strongly, and in this respect exactly resembles the similarly placed body, which must be regarded as a lens, of the eye of our freshwater Planarie.

The microscopic examination of the skin in the first place confirmed the supposition expressed by F. Miiller, that in this, as in the other Turbellaria, a ciliated epithelium exists, although, from his observation recorded above, this hardly required mi- croscopic proof. Although the ciliary coat in general had suffered greatly by preservation in spirits, the epithelial cells with their crown of cilia could, nevertheless, be unmistakeably recognized in particular places. Whether this coat of cilia be general, or, as in many Mollusca, only present on particular parts of the body, could not be decided. Nevertheless, from analogy with the other Turbellaria, we are scarcely justified in doubting that this coat is uniformly diffused. The ciliary cells are colourless, and usually of a wedge-shape. In many of them the thickening of the anterior cilium-bearmg cell-membrane was unmistakeable, and this appears to occur as universally in these epithelial structures as in the cylindrical cells of the intestine, according to the observations of Funke and Kolliker, Below them there is a layer of irregularly hexagonal pigment-cells, which are the seat of the true principal colour. Bacillar bodies, which, as is well known, occur so universally in marine and freshwater Planarie, were entirely wanting in the skin of my Geoplana. These, as I have repeatedly observed, may be very well preserved in spirits, so that their absence could hardly be due to the mode of preservation.

As in the other Turbellaria, a cutaneous muscular network follows beneath the cells of the skin, and in the first place, indeed, a simple layer of closely approximated longitudinal fibres. Below these is a closer layer of transversely placed muscular elements. The former readily separate in connexion with the cells of the epidermis, in the form of a thin membrane,

Dr. M. Schultze on the Terrestrial Planariz. 1]

from the annular muscles, which on their part enter into an intimate union with the viscera, and especially with the finer terminal ramifications of the intestine, so that they cannot be removed without adherent portions of the latter. The condition of